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1945 until about 1948

Germany

In the South-West of Germany, the existence of concentration camps is mostly denied, silenced out or played down. There are places, where KZ survivors from Western Europe returned to those places and demanded remembrance memorials to be put up. First remembrance objects are cemeteries – predominantly in the French occupation zone, mass graves are turned into cemeteries, as this was done in Schömberg, Schörzingen and Bisingen as well as in Hailfingen, Spaichingen and Haslach. Few gravesites and memorials were established in the American occupied zone. Early memorial inscriptions are in both occupation zones are mainly in French, Latin, Polish and Hebrew. They express the mourning of the survivors and their relatives for their co-prisoners and their families. An exception is the KZ cemetery in Heilbronn-Neckargartach, which was created by its citizens in 1946.  

 

Photo: KZ cemetery Bisingen 1946

 

 

1950

France

Survivors of the main camp demand that the site be preserved and established as a memorial and national necropolis.

 

 

 

1949 through 1959

Germany

After the foundation of the Federal Republic, the concentration camps were forgotten in many places. Only in small number of villages are memorial remembrance site established on grave sites or in cemeteries by local communes or counties in the 1950s; most individual cases are rooted in the initiatives of survivors, association of victims or French government agencies. The inscriptions on memorial stones and plaques erected on the German side are written in a general tone. Often they hide more than they tell.   

Caption: Memorial on the Reutlingen cemetery “Unter den Linden”.

Inscription: “In memory of the victims of violence”.

 

 

1956 through 1958

KZ cemetery Vaihingen/Enz

After the French “graves mission” exhumed the mortal remains of 1,488 victims of the KZ Vaihingen for identification in 1954, the KZ cemetery has been remodelled; most of the dead are intered on site. In 1956, the German authorities set up a memorial; the remodelling of the cemetery is completed in 1958.

 

Photo: Grave site of the Vaihingen/Enz memorial site

 

1960

France

General de Gaulle inaugurates the memorial, financed by the French government, on the site of the former Natzweiler main camp. Large-scale memorial celebrations are held their every year; the memorial site is visited by many students. However, the satellite camps have vanished from public awareness.

 

Photo: Charles de Gaulle

 

 

1960 through 1980

Germany

In the 1960-s and early 1970-s, the Stuttgart Minister Fritz Majer-Leonhard, director of the “Hilfsstelle für Rasseverfolgte” [Assistance Office for the Racially Persecuted], makes a strong commitment for the erection of memorials or remembrance plaques for the Nazi victims in Baden- Württemberg and for the maintenance of KZ grave sites. New memorial sites are built in several places, but the inscriptions remain vague and cloudy.

Photo: Epitaph inscribed "Here rest 1158 dead, with names unknown, from many European countries"

 

1961 through approx. 1965

Memorial celebrations in Schömberg, Schörzingen and Bisingen

Up to 1,700 persons participate in memorial celebrations of the DGB [German Trade Union Association], the Naturfreundejugend [Young Friends of Nature] and the SJD/Die Falken [Socialist Youth of Germany/The Falcons] on the cemeteries of Schömberg, Schörzingen und Bisingen.

 

 

1969

Memorial stone in Bisingen

When the “Meeting Centre for Recreation and Sport” is established on the terrain of the former KZ Bisingen, the local soccer club set up a memorial stone with a German, French and Latin inscription. The German inscription says – freely after Friedrich Schiller’s Thermopylae epigram – “Wayfarer, when you pass here, remember those, whose lives were taken, before they had a chance to live it out in a meaningful manner.” Nonetheless, this memorial stone is the first memorial, which was set by the German side outside a cemetery or a grave site in commemoration of the victims of a Natzweiler satellite camp.

 

1972 through 1973

Bisingen

A citizens’ initiative, supported by people from Germany and abroad prevents a trash dump from being built right next to the KZ cemetery Bisingen.

 

1978

Basic research concerning the Natzweiler satellite camps

Since the Mid-1970-s, a student work group of the Pedagogical College of Ludwigsburg deals in a scientific way with the history of the individual Natzweiler satellite camps in South-West-Germany. It is led by the history didactic Herwart Vorländer. In a majority of the cases, these studies constitute the first research about these concentration camps. In 1978, seven works are published in an anthology: Herwart Vorländer (Ed.): Nationalsozialistische Konzentrationslager im Dienst der totalen Kriegsführung. Sieben württembergische Außenkommandos des Konzentrationslagers Natzweiler/Elsass, Stuttgart 1978: Kohlhammer (Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für geschichtliche Landeskunde in Baden-Württemberg, Reihe B, 91). [Publications of the Commission for Knowledge of the History of the Land in Baden-Württemberg, Series B, 91].

 

1980 trough 1988

Germany

Forty years after the end of the war, remembrance undergoes a radical change: union members, teachers, committed church people or youths form civic action groups. These investigate the history of former satellite camps “in front of their house doors” and search for survivors all over Europe. They also stand up for dignified memorials and meaningful information plaques at the historic sites. The groups fight for the establishment of memorial sites and meet significant resistance. A local remembrance culture develops because of this resistance. In many places, memorial and information boards, memorials and memorial stones are established in the middle of cities and local communities. Local action groups often mutate into memorial site initiatives.  

 

1989

Memorial site Eckerwald

The Eckerwald memorial is the first of Natzweiler memorial sites in Germany. 1989 the remembrance path with info boards and a sculpture is inaugurated on the former site of the “Wüste” plant 10 (Zepfenhan) in a preserved brick building of the former gas purification installation.

To the memorial site

1990

KZ Memorial Site Sandhofen

Opening of the KZ memorial site Mannheim-Sandhofen in the Gustav-Wiederkehr school.

To the memorial site

 

1990

KZ cemeteries Vaihingen/Enz and Unterriexingen

In October 1990, the KZ cemeteries Vaihingen and Unterriexingen are desecrated by Neo Nazis; tombstones are unearthed, smeared with swastikas, SS runes and paroles. Over 1.000 citizens participate several days later in a silent march in commemoration of the KZ victims and against antisemitism.

 

 

1994

Migrating exhibition about project “Wüste”

Opening of the exhibition “The “Wüste” undertaking – oil slate plants and concentration camps along the railroad track Tübingen-Rottweil 1944/45“ in Balingen. In the years to follow, the exhibition is also shown in Rottweil, Tübingen und Stuttgart.

 

 

1995

Foundation of the Working Group of the Land

Foundation of the “Working Group of the memorial sites and memorial site initiatives Baden-Württemberg“. In addition to the KZ memorial sites and initiatives, remembrance sites for Jewish life, for resistance, persecution and other victim groups also participated in the country-wide networking.

Upon pressure from the LAGG, the parliament of the Land of Baden- Württemberg, decides to include a spending position “Gedenkstättenförderung” [funding for memorial sites] into the household of the Land. Moreover, an office for memorial sites is established at the Centre for Political Education of the Land. It provides consultation to the memorial sites in the Land, supports their coordination and administers the budget provided by the Land. Since then, a committee, which consists of an equal number of representatives of the LpB and of the Speaker Council of the LAGG, decides about the provision of the funds – based on conditions determined by the parliament of the Land.

1996

KZ Memorial Site Bisingen

Opening of the exhibition „Schwierigkeiten des Erinnerns – Das Konzentrationslager in Bisingen und der Ölschieferabbau während des Zweiten Weltkriegs“ (“Difficulties with Memory – The Concentration Camp Bisingen and Oil Slate Mining during the Second World War”) at the regional museum in Bisingen. Originally intended to serve as a temporary exhibition only, the memorial site continues on as a permanent exhibition after 1998. Since 2006, its title is „Mut zur Erinnerung – Mut zur Verantwortung“ (“Dare to Remember – Dare to be Accountable”). In 2019, the memorial site is redesigned.  

To the memorial site

1998

KZ Memorial Site Kochendorf

Opening of the KZ memorial site in the former salt mine in Bad Friedrichshall-Kochendorf.

To the memorial site

1998

First Neckarelz KZ Memorial Site

Opening of the KZ memorial site in the annex of the Clemens-Brentano elementary school in Mosbach-Neckarelz.

To the memorial site

1998

KZ Memorial Site Vulkan Haslach

Opening of the open-air memorial site “Vulkan” in the Urenwald near Haslach im Kinzigtal. It reminds of the three satellite camps located in Haslach.

To the memorial site

1998

Golub-Lebedenko Place Frankfurt am Main

In the Gallus precinct of Frankfurt, a place is named after two prisoners of the KZ “Katzbach”, Adam Golub and Georgij Lebedenko, who were shot in 1945, when they attempted to flee.

 

 

1998

History Teaching Path Bisingen

Inauguration of a history teaching path about the KZ of Bisingen.

 

 

1999

“Goldfish” History Teaching Path in Obrigheim

The memorial site Neckarelz inaugurates a history teaching path at the former gypsum mine in Obrigheim, where prisoners of the “Neckar camps” were deployed for forced labour.

 

 

2000

History Teaching Path Walldorf

A history teaching path is inaugurated on the site of the former KZ Walldorf in Mörfelden-Walldorf. 

 

2001

“Remembrance Path” Leonberg

The KZ memorial site initiative Leonberg inaugurates a multi-lingual history teaching path, which informs about the history of the concentration camp in several historic sites.

 

2001

KZ Memorial Site Hessental

Opening of the KZ memorial site in Schwäbisch Hall-Hessental on the former camp site near the train station.

To the memorial site

2002 through 2005

KZ Memorial Site Vaihingen/Enz

In 2002, the KZ memorial site Vaihingen/Enz opens. A media installation (“black box”) is inaugurated in 2005 in a hall built on the preserved foundations of the former delousing and shower barrack of the camp. In 2017, a seminar and archive room is added to the memorial site.

To the memorial site

2003

France

The French historian Robert Steegmann defends his seminal doctoral thesis at the University of Strasbourg about the Natzweiler concentration camp and its satellite camps. It appears as a book in 2005 (Struthof. Le KL-Natzweiler et ses kommandos. Une nébuleuse concentrationnaire des deux côtés du Rhin, 1941-1945). This becomes a starting point in France for taking a new look at the entire Natzweiler complex.

 

 

2005

Inauguration of the CERD in Natzwiller 

Inauguration of the newly designed state memorial and of the Centre Européen du Résistant Déporté (CERD) at the former main camp in Natzwiller, France. This exhibition about the camp history includes for the first time also the satellite camps.

  

 

2005

Wall of names in Leonberg

In front of the portal to the old Engelberg tunnel, where already in 2000 an information board had been positioned, a steel wall is erected, which is 25 m wide and 3 m high. There, one can find the engraved names of the prisoners of the KZ Leonberg and of other forced labourers. The wall of names forms the first part of the memorial site, which is finalised three year later.

To the memorial site

 
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